The terms subfertility and infertility are usually used conversely but are not the same. Subfertility is the delay in conceiving, i.e., the possibility of conceiving exists but might take more time than a normal pregnancy. On the other hand, infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of trying, which means conceiving is pretty much not possible without medical treatments or IVF treatments.
A major issue for subfertility is considered the problem with ovulation. All functional disturbances involved in subfertility results in morphological changes in the endometrium. The endometrium is the thin lining of the uterus. Every month endometrium thickens and renews itself, preparing for pregnancy and thinner endometrium leads to poor chances of fertility.
Endometrium keeps changing throughout a woman’s menstrual cycle in response to the female hormones estrogen and progesterone (steroid hormones that play a vital role in human reproduction). When the endometrium does not have the right characteristics in order to fertilize eggs, that might lead to infertility. Studies say that anovulatory endometrium is the major cause of infertility and is treatable.
The endometrium is made of three layers
The endometrium is a sensitive indicator of ovarian features and endometrial biopsy is one of the vital investigations in infertility. Endometrial biopsy is a procedure to evaluate the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. To check the abnormal cells in the lining of the uterus, the specialist takes samples. This helps in differentiating between anovulation and ovulatory infertility.
The affected person does now no longer want to go through extra invasive approaches as endometrial biopsies have an excessive sensitivity and specificity for detecting endometrial malignancy.
PCOS(Polycystic ovary syndrome) is a common endocrine disorder found in women of reproductive age. The reason for the absence of ovulation during the menstrual cycle is frequently caused by PCOS. These metabolic abnormalities have implications for reproductive features and for long-time period health. Visit an IVF-specialized clinic, like Kokoori, and discuss the details in person.
Said that obesity has an effect on the medical and endocrine presentation of ladies with PCOS. Overweight ladies with PCOS are much more likely to be anovulatory and to have signs of androgen excess (a condition in which the ovaries make too much testosterone).
The ovulatory disorder is a time period that describes a set of problems wherein ovulation fails to occur or happens on a rare or abnormal basis. It might not be possible for ladies to menstruate in case they are diagnosed with an ovulatory disorder. But In other cases, patients might regularly menstruate even if they are not ovulating. In ovulatory infertility relative progesterone deficiency results in delayed maturation of glands.
Progesterone is a sex hormone that gets your uterus ready for pregnancy. Once one of the ovaries releases an egg, the patient’s progesterone level has to rise. Progesterone helps the uterus thicken.
There are certain cases of low progesterone which likely causes abnormal uterine bleeding in women who are not pregnant. poorly functioning corpus luteum(a completely normal cyst that forms on the ovary every single month in women of childbearing age) may lead to progesterone deficiency. Abnormally shortened or prolonged menstrual cycles cause infertility by altering the endometrium. You’ll need progesterone even if are pregnant for maintaining your uterus until the baby is born.
The overgrowth of endometrial tissue or the cells in the lining of the uterus leads to the formation of endometrial polyps. Uterine polyps may cause problems with menstruation and also lessens the chance of fertility. Inadvertent and accidental implantation of the embryo over the polyps may lead to failed implantation.
Also, adhesions due to endometrial curettage (removal of endometrium using a surgical instrument curette) can damage the endometrium. Induced abortion can also additionally be the reason for mechanical harm to the endometrium.
It is always important to promote a healthy uterus especially when trying to conceive. Once the fertilized eggs are implanted in the endometrium, it derives nourishment from uterine blood vessels and becomes an embryo and then a fetus. This process will not be properly processed in case of irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding, which affects your fertility. In these instances, ovulation is delayed, and the coordinated delay in the maturation of the endometrium is apparent.
There is also a condition where endometrium is found outside the uterine cavity called endometriosis which is also a prominent reason for infertility. Many women with endometriosis have pelvic pain mainly at the time of menstrual bleeding or with sex. But there can be situations where no symptoms are shown. The research mentions that around 30% – 50% of infertile women have endometriosis which 20% – 25% could be asymptomatic. In comparison to fertile women, infertile women are 6 to 8 times expected to have of endometriosis.
Endometriosis grows inside the ovary and forms a cyst (endometrioma). Women with endometriosis possibly have endocrine and ovulatory disorders. The associated symptoms of endometriosis can impact the patient’s general physical, mental, and social well-being. Endometriosis influence fertility in several ways – distorted pelvis anatomy, inflammation of the pelvic structure, scarred fallopian tubes, and changes in the hormonal environment of the eggs.
It is required to have a balanced diet and proper mindful exercise. Reducing smoking habits also helps you in keeping your uterus healthy. Nevertheless have a good conversation with a qualified doctor and diagnose your issue and start immediate treatments. The chances of being able to conceive are improved after surgical treatments. A combination of surgical and medical therapy may be beneficial in patients attempting to get pregnant via IVF (in vitro fertilization).